Address
A string of alphanumeric charecters that are used to transact on a blockchain.
Wallet
Device / Software that stores private keys.
Hashing Function
Function that takes any object as an input and returns a random string of defined length.

It is very difficult to calculate the input,given the output.Very easy to compute the output (called Hash or Digest) for any input.

Transaction
A state change in the system. (Some value moved from one entity to another)
Block
A group of transactions.
Blockchain
A chain of blocks.In present designs chaining is achieved by pointing to the previous blocks hash in the current block
Unspent Transaction Output system
A system for keeping track of state changes, in which each changed state is linked to some previous state.
Mining
The process of generating a valid block to be added into the blockchain.
Consensus Mechanism
A way for participants in the system to agree on its state.
Transaction fee
The price of including a particular transaction into a block.
Block Reward
Aggregate reward to the participant(miner) for successfully adding a block to the chain.
Confirmation
Miner level finality of have successfully included a transaction in the blockchain.
Block Height
Block Height is a measure of how large a blockchain is based on the number of blocks appended to the chain.
Token
A unit of accounting for a given blockchain.

It may or may not be native.

It may or may not have other functions

Fiat Money
Refers to currencies that gain value by the authority of their creator’s jurisdiction.
Gas
Means of transaction fee payment in some blockchains.This may or may not be the native token.
Pseudo-anonymity
A sense of anonymity created,as wallet address are the only identification(instead of, and proxy to real world ID) needed to transact on a blockchain.
Public and Private Keys
A key-pair that is used to sign data as means of proving access/ownership of accounts.